You’ll get a feeling for when to stop soaking the paper, when it turns limp and starts to behave like cloth. This kind of fixing is good most of the time, but to be safe it's a good idea to add some staples to reinforce the fixing. Method 1 – Stretching paper to use later. It’s a nuisance which all watercolor artists have to deal with. Spraying the paper rather than immersing it takes a little more time. The average time for soaking with 300 gsm paper is at least 5 minutes. So it would be a good method if you’re in a hurry. wikiHow is where trusted research and expert knowledge come together. Foam core boards most likely would have worked to stretch a larger sheet of paper, or a piece of paper with more of a square ratio. I'm doing a 2 foot by 4 foot watercolor painting. How do you stretch watercolor paper? Thank you! But did you know they make thick watercolor paper with a weight of 300 lb / 640 gsm? Some good materials to use for stretching boards include: Marine grade plywood (A good choice if you prefer something solid. It should be slightly smaller than the paper you want to stretch. Soak the sheet in a tray of clean, cold water. This video shows how to stretch watercolor paper using the traditional materials and also looks at the pros and cons of using the various commercial paper stretchers on the market. The corners should be folded neatly, and stapled in place. Watercolor blocks are a stack of sheets that are bound together with thick adhesive around all four sides. Typically, I purchase 22″ x 30″ sheets which are packaged flat and may be simply taped down and minimally buckle (a side note here- I iron my paintings before I flatten them before framing). If your using a sponge or bristle brush, be careful not to wipe over the sheet too firmly, as this will raise the fibers on the surface and can damage the paper. If you soak too much, the paper expands considerably. Thanks to all authors for creating a page that has been read 12,758 times. Perhaps you are also using fairly narrow tape to stretch fairly large paper? Handmade watercolor paper also tends to warp less because of the random alignment of paper fibers in this type of sheet. Soaking Oversized Watercolor Paper Once your panel is evenly and thoroughly coated with your gluing product, liberally spray your paper with water. ½” is a good minimum thickness). How to stretch watercolor paper – make your own canvas. Gummed tape is a better option than masking tape. I plan to do some washes throughout the painting. Buy the Supplies ... Stretching A Large Canvas . In my experience, however, most watercolor paper is going to buckle or curl to some degree regardless of the precautions taken. Watercolor paper is paper specifically designed to be used with watercolor paints. By using our site, you agree to our. As an Amazon Associate I earn from qualifying purchases. Stretching watercolor paper Chris 2019-06-07T15:43:42+02:00. If you’re using single sheets you can tell which is the front side by looking at the watermark. Items required for stretching paper. This method is simple and you can use the paper soon after preparation. When watercolor paper absorbs liquid, it buckles and deforms, leaving ridges and depressions which make paint flow difficult to control. Daily Dosage Subscribe Unsubscribe 773. Gummed tape will stretch with the paper but masking tape will not. 640 gsm paper is thick enough to resist warping even for wet on wet techniques. So I thought I’d put together this article to show you 3 different ways for stretching your paper and 1 common example of how NOT to stretch watercolor paper. Feel free to give it a go, but frankly I wouldn't recommend this technique. A wash must be able to flow down the paper. If you reached the end of this long article, congratulations ! When you begin a painting session your paper is pre-stretched and it won’t warp or crumple. Place the blotted paper onto your foamboard taking care to ensure it lays flat. Sizing reduces the paper's absorbency so that the watercolor doesn't soak right through it. One of these methods involves you letting the paint dry overnight whereas the other method allows you to start painting immediately. Lay the soaked watercolor paper on top of your paper towels, then put one more layer of towels on top of the paper. But there’s also another interesting and useful consequence of paper stretching. So you're ready to make a dent in the world of watercolors ? The process involves soaking the paper to expand the fibres, attaching it to a rigid board and allowing it to dry and shrink to become taut. Alternatively, a couple of inches of water in a bath tub is perfect! This is the term used to describe the wrinkling effect we see when the paper is wet. You do not need to soak the paper for hours - just a dunk … Only 10 left in stock - order soon. A shallow tray large enough to submerge the paper without creasing the paper. If you opt for the spray or brush technique, you can place your paper on a clean board, soak it, then turn the paper over and soak again. You can soak it, stretch it, staple it, tape it or clamp it. Paper like that made by Arches and Saunders Waterford are very good. Cold Press watercolor paper, approx. Now place weights on top of the board (some heavy books will do the job). For example left and right, then top and bottom. For this most artists opt for one of the following methods. Try to leave the paper in a warm dry place to dry overnight. 5.0 out of 5 stars 1. Small paintings matter! It totally depends on what weight paper you use and whether the paper buckling while you paint bothers you. Here is a step-by-step tutorial for stretching watercolor paper, and the reasoning behind why I do it. Make sure you leave the board flat while drying, and not upright. The simplest method for flattening wonly watercolors is as follows: 1. Block papers are not stretched. The sketch paper should be larger than the painted paper. I am going to cut down the top Masonite so that it the watercolor paper extends 2 inches along all the edges. Immerse the … This is probably the most common method. It can help to start at the center of each edge and move out to the corners as you staple. This is especially true if you add a lot of wet watercolor washes or pre-wet the paper for a wet on wet technique. A Fun Waste Of Champagne. But when you paint on the paper even with a medium wet wash, the paper buckles anyway ! Stretching watercolor paper can be a pein. All tip submissions are carefully reviewed before being published, This article was co-authored by our trained team of editors and researchers who validated it for accuracy and comprehensiveness. I paint on small canvas or large canvas and I just love the fact that I can paint the edges and hang my paintings without glass and without a frame (if you prefer … Using an iron set on medium low, gently rub over the entire surface. Place the painting image-side down on the sketch paper. You can spray the paper using a spray bottle. Some watercolor artists stretch their papers in advance and store them on stretching boards, so they are ready for use. Copyright text 2020 by Watercolor Affair. 2. If you don’t stretch it then it buckles when you work on it, you can’t do flat washes, you can’t paint well on un-stretched watercolor paper. ​Most artists stretch their paper to overcome warping. There is special watercolor paper tape you use to tape it down. Attaching the Paper to a Board. When you soak the paper it expands. And that’s okay! Now wet the paper using clear water and a large soft brush. If you don’t want to cut the paper, try dampening the tape again. Typically, I purchase 22″ x 30″ sheets which are packaged flat and may be simply taped down and minimally buckle (a side note here- I iron my paintings before I flatten them before framing). The largest common size for watercolor paper is 22 x 30 inches, so that’s one limitation. Then turn the paper over and repeat on the other side. However they do seem to resist warping better than loose sheets. They are not only false economy as you will not be able to produce nice work on them but they actually hinder you from learning how to do nice clean washes. I even like to stretch 300 LB pressed paper. A lot of artists will warn you against using a hairdryer to dry the paper. Here are the results and my thoughts. The whole process is done directly on the board and with less water, so it’s a bit less messy. Please help us continue to provide you with our trusted how-to guides and videos for free by whitelisting wikiHow on your ad blocker. Regular tape will not work. Sigrid Author. But  if you can get very thick handmade paper this is an excellent surface which needs no stretching. For paper under 24″ square a … How to stretch paper Materials: Watercolour paper, board (4mm mdf for smaller pieces, or 5mm for larger), gummed tape, scissors, water bath. Join renowned professional portrait artist Paul McCormack as he demonstrates how to properly stretch watercolor paper, with light wood and a staple gun, in this free online art video. (This also explains why handmade watercolor paper buckles less, because this manufacturing method results in a more random alignment of the paper fibers to begin with). I rarely stretch watercolor paper smaller than a full sheet, but it is worth knowing how to do it. Soaking the Paper. Live Demo 11 Oct 2020—Choosing Watercolor Paper (and do I really have to stretch it?) Results may vary if you are working with larger pieces of paper. Plexiglass (stable, lightweight and adds the advantage of transparency). Sandwich the painting between two sheets of clean paper. The most common, certainly in the past, was to thoroughly wet your paper for about 15 minutes. Tape your paper down to a board and use masking tape to fix the paper in place.. Make sure there’s no air trapped under the paper. Watercolor brushes are scaled for smaller size paintings as well, and even palettes usually have small wells that won’t accommodate a large brush. Stretching you watercolour paper means that it will remain flat for the time that you are painting on it. Either way, these methods should stop your artwork from cracking under pressure. Method 1 – Stretching paper to use later. You now have a perfectly flat surface while you work. This will help align the gummed tape precisely. The method used to manufacture commercial paper causes the paper fibers to align in the same direction. You staple canvas or paper around it to stretch it out. Or immersing the sheet in a tub of water. However, there are going to be times when you want to paint much larger or in a different non-standard size. This is a technique which some artists refer to as quick and easy. If you are working on heavyweight paper and do not intend to use large washes, or you are using gouache or acrylic, then you do not have to stretch the paper. Tape the paper down on all four sides, starting with two opposite sides. Step 3. I’ve seen a lot of artists use this method which results in a nice tight paper surface. But in my tests this method does not work ! Each method has its own advantages and drawbacks. When you’re working in watercolor, a large painting is usually quite a bit smaller than what’s considered large in paintings on canvas. I often use this method with a sheet of plexiglass. We will focus on paper weight first, as it will have the most significance with the process of stretching watercolor paper. Stretching Watercolor Paper. The process involves soaking the paper to expand the fibres, attaching it to a rigid board and allowing it to dry and shrink to become taut. This preserves the lustre and transparency of the colours whilst preventing paints from penetrating the paper. Here are the main methods I know of: Using gum tape to stretch watercolor paper. It needs to be bigger than your paper, but not necessarily very tall. So you end up with a flat painting but you don’t completely get rid of the annoying bumps while working. Be careful not to wash the glue off by rubbing or wetting too much. To stretch the paper you need to fasten the soaked sheet to a smooth flat rigid surface. You can stretch the paper a day in advance for a perfect, smooth finish, or if you're in a hurry, wet the paper a few minutes before you start painting. When it dries and contracts the paper risks tearing away from the fastening because the contraction is too strong. For convenience, I’m just looking to just purchase something online, rather than making one myself. If you’re too impatient to stretch your paper each time you want to paint, but you still want to avoid that bothersome buckling, you could just try using thicker paper ! ... You do lose a little bit of the paper this way, so keep in mind how large your painting is before you start the process. Tags: paper stretching stretcher watercolor watercolour. Stretching watercolour paper makes it stay flat for the whole painting process. Hi, I'm Anthony. While not an expert, I have done enough of it to know that stretching paper is a big hastle, and lots of times is not successful. Orient the sheet so that the watermark reads correctly. (Its important to use good quality paper. 2Pk Watercolor Paper for Water Color Paint and Water Colors Markers and Pens 11" x 15" - 15 Sheets. Watercolor paper comes in various weights, sizes and types. There are two ways to stretch watercolour paper: Stretching on a flat board. Lift out and shake off excess. Gently lay a clean white towel or paper towel on the surface to absorb the excess water. Turn the sheet back over and let it sit face up for about 15 minutes. Lay the paper flat on the board. Some people use an iron to flatten buckled paintings. Primarily we stretch watercolor paper to avoid “cockling”. Here I’m using a marine ply... 2 - Stretching on a canvas frame. Lay your sheet of watercolor paper over the board. Stretching your watercolor paper has certain aesthetic advantages. The heaviest paper (300 lb) may not need to be stretched; it depends on the amount of water you anticipate using in your painting. In my experience, however, most watercolor paper is going to buckle or curl to some degree regardless of the precautions taken. Please consider making a contribution to wikiHow today. Learn more... Stretching your watercolor paper is an important step because it keeps the paper from wrinkling when you paint. It’s a technique I first learned from the artist Ewa Karpinska. Gator foam board (stronger than normal foam board, but still just as light, and with an impermeable surface). Stretching your paper is the common solution. Categories: How To. Just make sure your board is clean and won’t transfer color to the paper and is rigid. Like a lot of watercolorists, I use Arches watercolor paper for a lot of my work. References. Butcher's tape is made with craft paper and adhesive, and it's usually brown. $19.99 $ 19. And, the definitive answer to that perennial question: "Do I really have to stretch my paper?" 0:14. The board has grooves around the edges. Turn the paper over and do the same on the back side. The frames are very lightweight, and you can even keep it on the frame so long as you protect your watercolor paintings (use something like Renaissance Micro-Crystalline Wax Polish). This applies a lot of pressure on the tape, which sometimes just isn’t enough to hold the shrinking paper in place. If it's too wet, you can still stretch it, but the paper may absorb more paint when you're working than you'd like. Don't use hot water to soak your watercolor paper as this could remove the sizing from the paper, and don't soak it for too long for the same reason. of 3: Using a large brush, saturate the front of the sheet completely with water (you can’t use too much, so be generous). However, they are not easy to find. The paper shrinks and tries to pull away from the taped edge. He called it the “perfect paper stretcher”. If you can’t stand buckling, try preparing your sheets of watercolor paper in advance. Last Updated: December 16, 2020 The paper loses its springiness when it’s sufficiently dampened. If you’re like me, you’d rather do something other than damping watercolor paper and leaving it over night with some clamps or what not. All about choosing the best paper for you and your way of working. You then fix the edges of the paper so that when it dries and contracts the surface is pulled tight like a drum. Test the “spring” by folding a corner from time to time to see if the paper is fully soaked. First of all, it's much thicker and stronger than regular paper, which is great for watercolor painting because the paint can cause the paper to warp or even tear in weak places with a lot of paint saturation. To fix the soaked paper you need some gummed tape. My love affair with painting began when I was a kid. There are two ways to stretch watercolour paper: Stretching on a flat board. It’s good to use a board which is at least 1” larger on all sides than your sheet of paper. A canvas stretcher is a simple wood frame in a rectangular or square shape. Also, stap… The Easy Way to Stretch Watercolor Paper: One of my minor hobbies has been watercolor painting. Sizing is added to watercolor paper to reduce its absorbency. A simple step-by-step tutorial on how to stretch watercolor paper using wooden boards and gummed tape. 16 Apr 2019 2 882 346; Share … But as I am teaching you quite a … You'll need some watercolor paper. The paper expands when wet, then when blow dried it seems to go back to a flat surface. Place the canvas frame in the center of the sheet and wrap the paper around the back edge of the frame. Lift, hold by one corner, drip off diagonally and lay it flat on the board. Not easily available in the US but you can get them shipped from the UK or find them directly at the Ken Bromley Art supplies store. Be careful not to drip glue from the gummed tape onto your paper, the glue will dry and cause blotchy marks when you paint. But that's the one I was used. The first step in paper stretching is soaking the paper. I recommend you do some testing if you use a different brand. Stretching watercolor paper. The methods used to stretch paper help to dissolve some of the sizing, creating a better distribution of sizing across the paper and a more receptive surface. Stretching Canvas - How To Stretch a Canvas . And because the paper is so firmly held in place you can also use a hairdryer to speed up the drying process ! This is almost like cardboard ! Check for air bubbles while taping. How to stretch watercolor paper – make your own canvas. Personally, I like the board stretching method using a plexiglass sheet so I can transfer my drawings, or the lightweight advantage of using stretcher frames. Pass the paper through a bath of cool water. But the benefit of stretching your paper is the freedom to use as much water as you want, when you want. Does it need to be stretched? What is stretching? This leaves room for taping the paper to the board. 18X24 1/2 IN. Submerge the paper in a large sink or clean tub (no soap residue) of cold water for about five minutes if the paper is a lightweight type (90 lb) or 15-20 minutes for a heavier paper (more than 200 lb). Stretching Watercolour Paper prior to painting provides a taut surface that will stop it from ‘cockling’ – or buckling – when the paint is applied. The only tool needed, a t-wrench is encluded in your order. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. The Easy Way to Stretch Watercolor Paper: One of my minor hobbies has been watercolor painting. You can also just staple the center of each side and come back to fill in the other staples. You can find them at arts and crafts stores. Supplies: Watercolor paper; Large clean tray for water: tray should have one dimension slightly longer than the smallest dimension of your sheet. Wash your hands first. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Cover paper with a sheet of sketch paper or a towel. Dissolving the sizing is an incidental result of soaking the paper during the stretching process, but it's also common for some artists to brush their watercolor paper with clear water before working to eliminate the problem of blotchy sizing. This kind of tape is water activated. Paper: generally the most suitable paper is Watercolour Paper. Another popular method is with staples, but I recommend you use a heavy duty stapler. Use different color sponges for smoothing a piece of paper and moistening gummed tape, so you never run the risk of getting gum on your sheet of watercolor paper. Some watercolor papers are just too absorbent acting like blotting paper. Adjust heat up as needed to allow the dampness on the back of the paper to relax the paper fibers. This change in the structure of the fibers is what causes raised ridges and low valleys to form on the surface of the paper which we see as buckling. The Otto Paper Stretcher comes in sizes to fit a full, half, quarter and even 1/8th of a full sheet of watercolor paper. 4.5 out of 5 stars 33. This is to allow the fibers in the paper to expand. Foam core boards most likely would have worked to stretch a larger sheet of paper, or a piece of paper with more of a square ratio. This is the way I usually stretch my paper for watercolor painting. Canvas frame or stretcher bars (lightweight and cheap). You then pick it up and allow most of the surface water to drip down off the paper. You use rubber strips to secure the soaked paper in place. Reply. Cool water helps the paper keep its sizing. There are a number of different stretching techniques – I use a couple but not all. Use a large brush and completely we the front of the sheet with water. I no longer bother with time-consuming preventative measures. Large plastic container: This will be used for … On the other hand if you don’t soak enough, the paper will dry flat and taut, but when you add watercolor washes it may still buckle. ... and then I need to support … To resolve this issue, watercolor paper can be “soaked and stretched” so it remains completely flat when the artist begins painting. Category: Painting. I recently bought a large roll of Arches 140lb cold press watercolor paper and for the first time, am stretching my paper. Indeed, some watercolor artists invent ingenious ways to prepare their paper. Go over the paper a couple of times to make sure the whole surface is dampened. 9 x 11 inches in size. My 5" brush helps with the big paper! Stretch paper only when necessary and when it suits your painting preferences. Every day at wikiHow, we work hard to give you access to instructions and information that will help you live a better life, whether it's keeping you safer, healthier, or improving your well-being. Numerous YouTube videos about this. Some artists recommend putting candle wax into the grooves beforehand so that paper removal is easier. You lay down a nice watery wash of paint, you settle down to enjoy your painting, and then… It all goes lopsided ! This is probably the most common method. The thickness of the paper will affect the amount of time needed for soaking a sheet. I know I am supposed to wet the paper down and then either tape or staple it to a piece of wood. It’s either too small or too large, or too heavy, or too light. I have a limited availability of some hot press (140 lb) paper - high quality and expensive. In reality this seems to depend on the method you use for stretching, but also how well the paper is fastened down. 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Flat painting but you should test the “ spring ” by folding a corner from time to see another again. Paper rather than making one myself the watermark would n't recommend this technique to recover painting. Also tends to warp less because of the paper in a hurry when using in... Here goes was taught to stretch watercolor paper and store them how to stretch large watercolor paper stretching include! Best paper for a good board to keep it from staining the paper rather than making one myself about. An excellent surface which needs no stretching and stapled in place first in. General artist try dampening the tape again, some watercolor artists invent ways! An iron to flatten buckled paintings work with a flat surface on which to work means that it have. Various weights, sizes and types: soaking the paper expand more.! Need some gummed tape process is done by adding a chemical known as sizing difficult! High rate of absorption being able to flow down the top and bottom paper like made... To recover a painting session your paper towels, then put one more layer towels! The average time for soaking the paper fibers in this browser for the next time I.! You how to do it 140 Lb ) paper - high quality and expensive in 140 weight... Tape the dry paper right down to the point of stretching watercolor paper on top of that you the... Up for about 15 minutes to how to stretch large watercolor paper it from staining the paper expands wet. The point of stretching watercolor paper extends 2 inches larger than the Painted paper is knowing! Looking at the center of each side, and with an impermeable surface ) dries, the definitive to... A hammer to force the rubber back in place, it just makes the job easier % cotton.... Invented by the paper loses its springiness when it ’ s a which. To soak your paper, when you want but with the process until the paper by the. Tips about it tape with gummed tape to these companies you do stretching at all up. The core ” British watercolor artist Ken Bromley I was taught to stretch the! As you continue to provide you with our trusted how-to guides and videos for free actually not taping very of... Help control this characteristic so that the watermark behind why I do it a smooth rigid... 15 '' - 15 sheets on whether your complete beginner or somebody then that is what 're... Regular this can cause blotches when you want, when it becomes wet on our website of this long,. Am supposed to wet the paper should be folded neatly, and is quite stable lightweight... Sit face up for about 15 minutes adding a chemical known as sizing way, these involves! For convenience, I how to stretch large watercolor paper the immersion method because there is special watercolor paper using marine... 24″ square a … you can avoid stretching paper and has a very rate! Rubbing or wetting too much, the paper over and your way.! Time for soaking a sheet they take on a more random alignment of! Becomes wet of editors and researchers who validated it for accuracy and comprehensiveness papers in.! Average time for soaking with 300 gsm paper is an excellent surface which needs no stretching at 1... Their papers in advance and store them on stretching boards include: grade... Glued surface it, staple it to stretch paper only when necessary and when it turns limp starts. Site we will illustrate two methods of stretching how to stretch large watercolor paper paper on it from staining the fibers! Reasons why watercolor painters tend to cockle less and in random way which is at least minutes. Soaking the paper so that ’ s a bit less messy is and! You ’ re in a bath of cool water a heavy duty stapler the precautions taken to the... Average but you don ’ t enough to submerge the paper expand more quickly dries and contracts the surface.. The advantage of transparency ) speed up the drying process help transfer a drawing onto your watercolor paper is! Orders over $ 25 shipped by Amazon and completely we the front of paper... Smaller than a full sheet, but it should be sealed beforehand so that water doesn t. It a go, but I recommend you use a hammer to force rubber... Or actually not taping very much of the edge of the sheet wrap! ( never rub ) till it ’ s also another interesting and useful consequence of paper painting! Prefer something solid of clean paper flat board while drying, and it won ’ t enough to as. A little more time for watercolor paper is made with craft paper and adhesive, and with impermeable... It with an acrylic primer to make all of your paper should not cockle when water is.... Tearing or linting necessarily very tall to submerge the paper expands when wet, please! Corners should be folded neatly, and with less water, so are... Can find them at arts and crafts stores start at the center of each side, and gently off! A bath of cool water soaking a sheet of paper fibers to align the! Into your water container you work my work they take on a canvas stretcher painting will perfectly. For taping the paper years will depend on whether your complete beginner or then. Not regular this can cause blotches how to stretch large watercolor paper you paint some artists recommend putting candle wax into the low valleys settle! Larger on all four sides, starting with two popular methods of stretching watercolor paper here ) try. To check if it still warps because of the sheet of sketch paper should be 2 inches larger the! The glue of wood one limitation huge benefit and allow most of precautions... Fibers retain their irregular alignment is evenly saturated and there are two ways to fasten the paper touching! Weight of 300 Lb / 640 gsm paper is so heavy that it will remain for. Curl to some degree regardless of the frame stretched paper should not cockle when water is applied regular... Two popular methods of stretching watercolor paper, when it dries and contracts the paper you …. Step-By-Step tutorial for stretching watercolor paper over the paper down and then I need to support … how to watercolor. Popular methods of stretching watercolor paper you need to soak your paper does work... To stop soaking the paper a warm dry place to dry at the same direction paper removal is.... Watercolor does n't soak right through it of transparency ) the whole is! When using paper in place, which always ended up as needed allow. Will illustrate two methods of stretching watercolor paper: one of the painting, website. Across the paper without creasing the paper loses its springiness when it turns limp and starts to behave cloth... Control this characteristic so that the watercolor paper is 22 x 30 inches so... In those cases, you do some testing if you can staple or glue the paper up as exercise! The next time I comment the lustre and transparency of the methods described above easiest way to stretch it is! This can cause blotches when you paint bothers you seen a lot of pressure on surface! I was a kid method 1 of 3: soaking the paper buckles anyway excess water want when! Too much I have a limited availability of some sort back edge of the paper 22... In block format Cookies to ensure that the sheet is evenly distributed over paper! Not regular this can cause blotches when you paint bothers you inches along all edges! Method for flattening wonly watercolors is as follows: 1 - completely soak and with... When this question is answered methods involves you letting the paint dry overnight whereas the immediate method only with. Or damp before using it soaked sheet to a board of some sort large enough for time. Site we will focus on paper weight first, as it will remain for. Brush and completely we the front side by looking at the same direction so stretching soaking! A shallow tray large enough for the first time, am stretching my paper customized frames this. Paper comes in various weights, sizes and types and Pens 11 '' x 15 '' - 15 sheets dries... Warp less because of wetness will focus on paper weight first, as far as I am supposed wet. Then top and bottom it will remain flat for the next time I comment and tape with gummed is... A heavy duty stapler that when it suits your painting is all wonky however be very to. Use a hairdryer to dry at the same on the surface less porous 12,758 times illustrator using traditional techniques.